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A very detailed 's story of Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

1. The History of Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

Sotoba, or Japanese stupas, are being handed down from generation to generation as an indispensable part of memorial services, and they have a profound history of undergoing  changes in their shapes and roles.

Let’s take a journey through this curious history.

The Origin of Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

The Japanese word 《Sotoba》 is said to have derived from a Sanskrit word 《stupa.》 This seems natural since Buddhism itself originated in India, and so with the word 《Sotoba》.

The remains of Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, were given to 8 tribes, upon entering nirvana. The tower that was built then to store Buddha’s bones was the 《stupa.》

Stupas were also used as tombs for tribal leaders. It is said that there were various types of stupas, including magnificent high-rise ones consisting of 3 to 5 levels, or stories.

Stupas came to China and then to Japan. In China, the word 《stupa》 was spelled with Chinese characters that are used in Japan today to spell 《Sotoba》. As can be seen, the word 《stupa》 has been inherited in Japan without fail.

Sotoba (Japanese Stupas) in Memorial Services of the Heian Period (794 - 1185)

Buddhism came to Japan in the days of Prince Shotoku (574 - 622). With the Buddhist idealism came the construction of wooden stupas for storing Buddha’s remains and scriptures. During the Kamakura period (1185 - 1333), Sotoba (stupas) began to be produced with stones instead of wood.

Originally, Sotoba served as tombs where the living would bury their loved ones and mourn their passing, but over time Sotoba came to fulfill a role in memorial services, rather than as direct burial sites. Records indicate that as early as the end of the Heian Period, a stone-made Sotoba was built near Emperor Go-Ichijō’s tomb.

The latter half of the Heian Period was a catastrophic time, filled with droughts, earthquakes, plagues, great famines, and rebellions by monks and swordsmen. As the world turned upside down in Japan, pessimism and the-end-of-the-world ideology gained popularity, and people strongly wished to obtain peace at least after death. These historical events and background probably contributed to the change of Sotoba’s role in the Japanese funeral tradition.

Simplification of Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

The shapes and roles of Sotoba have changed over time, but their history in Japan can be characterized especially by their simplification and slimming.

Sotoba were originally passed down through generations as grave towers for burying influential people and mourning their deaths, and many Sotoba came in luxurious and monumental sizes, such as three-towered and five-towered pagodas. However, royalty and authorities were not the only ones in need of graves. People at the lowest rank of the society needed them as well. However, since the poor could not afford luxurious Sotoba, they had no choice but to get by with simple stone-made ones. From this, the use of stone-made graves of the size just enough to bury human bodies spread.


Over time, the shape of simplified Sotoba changed from the pillar-type (Kaku Toba) to a wooden plate-type (Ita Toba), and Sotoba that are widely seen today are the latter.

2. The Significance of Sotoba Shapes

It is customary to have Sotoba erected along with tombs, to bury loved ones and mourn their passing. Did you know that there’s a meaning in the shape of Sotoba? Since Sotoba are erected for the sake of our loved ones, let’s learn more about them and appreciate the role they play in memorializing our loved ones.

Five-Ring Pagoda as the Model of Sotoba

Sotoba originated in India, the birthplace of Buddhism, and similarly the Japanese word 《Sotoba》 also came from the Sanskrit word 《stupa.》 Stupas were originally tomb towers that stored the remains of Buddha, and were also used as tombs of leading tribal heads with Buddhist faith. Today, stupas, or Sotoba, are simple and wooden-made, but in ancient times large-scale towers such as three-storied and five-storied ones were not uncommon.

Five-storied stupas soon started being called 《five-ring pagodas.》Their shape reflects the view of the universe of ancient India, and the shape of Sotoba we see today is said to be based on this.

The Meaning and Shape of Five-Ring Pagodas

A five-ring pagoda consists of 5 shapes, specifically, a gem-shaped 《space ring,》 a semicircular 《wind ring,》 a trapezoidal 《fire ring,》 a spherical 《water ring,》 and a rectangular 《earth ring.》 In ancient India, it was thought that the universe consisted of 5 elements (space, wind, fire, water, and earth), and this idea was reflected in the construction of five-ring pagodas as well. If we carefully look at Sotoba of today, it is clear that their shape is derived from that of five-ring pagodas.

On the front side of Sotoba is 《bonji》 with the motif of Buddhist cosmology. It is clear that ideas of ??ancient Buddhism are well inherited in Sotoba of today.

The Meaning of the Sotoba Shape

In Japan, it is commonly thought that the tradition of memorial services with Sotoba came about in the middle of the Heian Period (Heian Period lasted 794 - 1185), among religious sects with esoteric faiths. It is very interesting that Sotoba’s small wooden shape contains a cosmology of such a grand scale.

Hopefully it has become clear now that there is a deep meaning in the shape of Sotoba seen at many cemeteries, and that this knowledge will help in a deeper appreciation of Sotoba’s role.


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3. The Significance of Texts on Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

There are texts on both front and back sides of a Sotoba. Among these letters, particularly mysterious characters called "bonji" are noteworthy. Let’s examine their meaning and philosophy.

The Meaning of

There are 5 《bonji》 written on the front side of a Sotoba, and these 《bonji》 are read, from top to bottom, "Kya", "Ka" "Ra" "Ba" "A". Each of them has its own meaning, associated color, one of the Five Tathagatas (Five Great Buddhas) and a direction assigned.

  Kya Ka Ra Ba A
Elements Space Wind Fire Water Earth
Colors Blue Black Red White Yellow
Shapes Jewel Hemispherical Triangular Sphere Rectangular
Tathagata (Five Great Buddhas) Ashuku Nyorai (Akshobhya; pacification) Fukujoju Nyorai (Amoghasiddhi; Achievement, accomplishment) Hosho Nyorai (Ratnasambhava; Enrichment, wealth) Amida Nyorai (Amitabha;  Immortality & endless forgiveness) Dainichi Nyorai (Vairocana; Infinite universe)

The ideas of Tathagata contained in each 《bonji》 are not absolute, and should be taken as just one kind of ideas. For example, another interpretation exists in esoteric Buddhism, where 《Kya》 = Dainichi Nyorai (see above table), 《Ka》= Houtou Nyorai (Ratnasambhava, see above table) , 《La》= Kaifu Keo (Samkusumitarāja), 《Ba》= Muryouju (from Sukhāvatī-vyūha) and 《A》= Tenku Raion (Buddha that provides knowledge of nirvana just like a thunder from the sky). Also,《bonji》used and their interpretations vary by sect and region.

Texts Other Than 《Bonji》

On a Sotoba, 5 《bonji》are written and they are, in the order from top, 《Shuji,》《Kaimyou,》《Kaiki,》 and 《Seshumei》. Their meanings are as follows:

Shuji: 13 Buddhist deities, each of whom is associated with a memorial service in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition

Kaimyou: The name of the person who joined Buddhism, that is, in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition, a name given to the deceased after his/her death


Kaiki: One of the memorial services as defined in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition, and used such as "7th Kaiki,13th Kaiki,etc.

Seshumei: Name of the person who bears the cost of Sotoba; Nowadays, the date of Sotoba erected is written as well.
 
As for the back side of a Sotoba, various bodhisattva names and parts of mantras are written in 《bonji.》 When an annual memorial service finishes, the space for Kaiki on the front side is filled with texts such as 《Urabon-e (Bon Festival time when the deceased returns to his/her home in the living world, usually in mid-August》 or 《Higan-e (timeframe in the spring or fall when the living memorializes the dead)》.

The Meaning of 《Bon》 in 《Bonji》

The kanji 《梵 (pronounced as 《Bon》)》 used to write the word 《bonji (梵字)》means the highest principle in India’s Brahmanism. One might wonder why Brahmanism and not Buddhism. There was said to have once been a movement to deify this letter 《梵》and that this movement was incorporated into Buddhism. In ancient India, things that deify Brahman, the creator of the world, are called 《梵天 (pronounced Bonten),》but this deity also exists as the guardian deity of Buddhism.

Additionally, the letter 《梵》has other meanings such as "to wash and purify" and "sacred things 
"and represents hopes for all sorts of impurities and disasters to be removed and for peace and happiness to be presented.



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4. Where and When Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas) Are Built

Bon Festival and Higan are seasons for memorial services, and when at a cemetery one may notice Sotoba that look like they’ve been renewed. When do Sotoba get erected or renewed? Also, is there such a thing as suitable locations for Sotoba? Let’s find out!

Locations and Times for Erecting Sotoba

Although there are no strict rules on when to erect Sotoba, they are traditionally erected in time for memorial services, whose general schedule is as follows:

Houyou: 49th day, 1st year, 3rd year, 7th year, etc. 《milestones》 after death, as determined in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition

Sho-tsuki Meinichi: The date the loved one passed away

Memorial services that are held during Bon Festival and Higan seasons

 
The place where Sotoba is erected is called 《Touba Tate (tower stand).》 Although there is no special rule for this either, usually it is a vacant space within an area containing a tombstone.

Where to Go to Have Sotoba Erected

Make a request with the administrator of your family temple or cemetery, and they will prepare and erect a Sotoba. It can be received on the day of a memorial service. When to make a request varies by temples and cemeteries, so it is important to check with them in advance.

Reasons for Erecting Sotoba

Sotoba were originally built to hold the remains of Buddha, but today, they are erected as a way to memorialize the deceased.

Memorial services are called 《Tsuizen Kuyo》 in Japanese and its kanji spelling conveys the concept contained in this word. 《Tsuizen》 is spelled in kanjis that together represent 《to pursue the good,》 and 《tsuizen kuyo》 are conducted under the idea that accumulation of good deeds by the living also become good deeds of their ancestors. By the way, in Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land Buddhism), memorial services are not conducted with Sotoba.


In Buddhism, the act of erecting Sotoba itself is seen as a good deed, and needs to be conducted for memorial services as an act of memorializing the deceased. Knowing this also adds depth to our understanding and appreciation of Sotoba.

5. What to Do with Old Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)?

Although a vey important part of memorial services, Sotoba don’t last forever unlike graves. An old Sotoba can be replaced with a new one in time for the next earliest memorial service, or can be disposed of. Let’s examine how old Sotoba are dealt with.

Why Do Sotoba Need to Be Disposed of?

Sotoba are usually erected in time for memorial services that are defined in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition. The merits of Sotoba are said to last only for 1 day, which means their function has been fulfilled as soon as a memorial service ends. It then follows that Sotoba are naturally to be disposed of once the memorial service is over.

However, in reality it is rare that they get disposed of the day following a memorial service, and many remain on site at cemeteries until the next service. Nonetheless, old Sotoba shouldn’t have to be left on site forever, for they could be blown off by the wind and injure passersby.

How to Dispose of Old Sotoba

There are various sayings on methods to dispose of old Sotoba. Since they are an important part of Buddhist beliefs, we wouldn’t want to treat them poorly. For this reason, some prefer to have them burned in a special sacred way by temples. However, it may be too much of a burden for temples to be the only place to rid of old Sotoba, since there are many at cemeteries. For this reason, some people prefer another way of disposal.

But what another way could there be, other than to throw it out as garbage? Especially, treating it as garbage may seem like disrespect toward Buddha and the deceased. But the feelings of remembering and affections toward the deceased remains as strong even if old Sotoba are gone. Buddhism teaches us the importance of merit, not its shape.

Importance of Thanking Sotoba Before Disposal

Sotoba help us deliver our affection for the deceased and wish for them to rest in peace. Some of us may have a hard time parting with Sotoba for this reason. Regardless of how we dispose of them, it is important to do so with a feeling of gratitude toward Sotoba and the role they played.

6.Cost of Sotoba (Japanese Wooden Grave Tablets / Stupas)

Sotoba are erected with ?bonji? and mantra written on them, but just how much do they cost? Also, how are they paid for? Let’s find out the market prices and payment methods for Sotoba.

The Market Price of Sotoba

An order for a Sotoba is placed with the temple where a memorial service is to be held, and the fee paid for this is usually called 《Toba-ryo》 in Japanese.

There is no ?market price? for Toba-ryo. Temples usually set the pricing, and on average one Sotoba costs approximately 3,000 - 5,000 Japanese yen, and at most about 10,000 Japanese yen.

 Toba-ryo is paid by Seshu (the person who pays for Sotoba, and not necessarily the same as the representative of a family mourning the deceased). It’s a good idea to check with a temple on the cost before ordering a Sotoba. If multiple Sotoba for several deceased members are to be erected, it’s a good idea to compile a list of the member names and place an order at the earliest time possible.

Sotoba Fee Payment Method

At memorial services, the fee paid to a temple for conducting the services is called 《Ofuse.》 However, the fee for a Sotoba is to be paid separately from 《Ofuse》."

Toba-ryo is to be placed and handed to a temple in a white envelope designated for official letters and documents, usually sold at stationary stores. The envelope cannot have 《Mizuhiki,》 a decorative Japanese cord made from twisted paper, often used in wrapping gifts for celebrations.

The upper part of the envelope’s frontside is used to write the content of the envelope, i.e., the Sotoba fee in its appropriate Japanese writing, and below it the name of the person it’s dedicated to. Once the fee is enclosed, the flap of the envelope needs to be closed, firmly glued and marked by 《〆》 which is a kanji indicating the sealing of the envelope.

The amount of the fee should not be written anywhere on the envelope, but rather on a piece of paper to be enclosed with the fee. The paper should indicate the name of the person paying for it, immediate family members and relatives in the way governed by tradition. However, this is just one way to do it, and not a strict rule.

Memorial Service Costs Other Than Sotoba Fees

There are various other fees paid to temples in association with memorial services, such as 《Ofuse,》 《Okuruma ryo》 and 《Gozen ryo."

《Okuruma ryo (transportation expense)》is 5,000 Japanese yen on average, while 《Gozen ryo (meal expense)》 is 5,000 - 20,000 Japanese yen on average. However, these fees apply only to cases where chief Buddhist monks are invited to meals.

As for 《Ofuse,》 the word means a monetary offering, close to a donation, as a token of sincerity and appreciation. Therefore, there is no set price for 《Ofuse.》 If unsure, it’s a good idea to ask the representative of the temple.

Many of these fees are not something we deal with on a daily basis, and thus it’s a good idea to familiarize ourselves with them, even a little, before the necessity presents itself. The temple your family is a member at is always the best source to obtain information.



7. Variations in the Size and Shape of Sotoba (Japanese Stupas) by Region
 

Sotoba come in various types and each type has its own size and shape. Let’s examine Sotoba from the viewpoint of regions and their cultures.

Sotoba by Region

In fact, customs in regard to Sotoba vary greatly depending on regional traditions and characteristics. Regional cultures also influence the types of Sotoba used, and consequentially their sizes and shapes as well.
 
In some regions, it is customary for relatives to exchange Sotoba. In other places, Sotoba are not erected at all, or in yet other areas, the use of Sotoba is mandated. Thus, each region’s customs largely influence the use of Sotoba.

Types of Sotoba

There are 5 types in all. Let’s look at each of them.

Ita Toba

With a thickness of 1cm and a length of about 60 - 180cm, Ita Toba are mainly erected behind tombstones. Ita Toba is so common that some people may think this is the only type of Sotoba.

Kaku Toba

A Kaku Toba has a square pillar shape, a length of 120 - 210cm and a thickness of about 10cm. The pointed tip is most likely an influence of five-ring pagodas, which Sotoba are modeled after. Kaku Toba are sometimes also used as grave markers until tombstones are built.

Shichi-hon Toba

Sotoba with a length of 30 - 40cm used at memorial services held every 7 days from the 7th day until the 49th day after death.

Kyogi Toba

Thinner than Ita Toba, Kyogi Toba are sometimes also called Mizu Toba, since they are also set off on rivers at some memorial services. They are also often used at special memorial services such as Higan (memorial services held in the spring and the fall) and Segaki (a ritual where offerings are made to souls that have not been memorialized, thus suffering from hunger and thirst).

Uetsuki Toba

Uetsuki Toba are designated for final memorial services such as the 33th- and 50th-year memorial services. They are also called by another name that is spelled in a combination of kanjis representing ?Sotoba made of raw woods,? since raw woods are used in making Sotoba without cutting off branches and leaves. Cedar, pine, and willow are often used for making Uetsuki Toba. In some regions, Ita Toba are used to serve as Uetsuki Toba.

Variations by Religious Sect

Sotoba types and sizes, as well as 《bonji》on them vary by religious sect. For example, in Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land Buddhism), there is no concept of 《Tsuizen Kuyo》 memorial service (with 《tsuizen》 literally meaning 《to pursue the good,》 and thus this type of memorial services being conducted under the idea that accumulation of good deeds by the living also become good deeds of their ancestors), and thus Sotoba are not needed. It is the stance of Jodo Shinshu that those who passed away and those who live in this world are all within the merit of Amitabha.

Regardless of the various forms of memorial services by religious sect or region, we all have the same wish for our loved ones in heaven to rest in peace after passing. Let’s keep that feeling no matter which type of Sotoba we decide to have erected.


8. The History of Kaku Toba (Pillar-Shaped Japanese Stupas)

To understand the history of Kaku Toba, the most common Sotoba type, we need to understand five-ring pagodas in detail. Let’s learn more about Kaku Toba's history by clarifying its relationship with five-ring pagodas.

Five-Ring Pagodas as the Origin of Kaku Toba

A Kaku Toba is about 10cm in thickness and about 120 - 210cm in length. In addition to being used at memorial services, they are erected as grave markers until the completion of tombstones, or at celebratory rituals of newly constructed temples.

The origin of Kaku Tuba’s design lies with five-ring pagodas. Records indicate that Kaku Toba were erected with a design based on that of five-ring pagodas, but then became simplified, resulting in the creation of the Ita Toba type.

What are Five-Ring Pagodas?

It is said that five-ring pagodas were very popular among influential people in India, China and Japan, and were built so that these people would maintain peace after death. In Japan, there are still many historic buildings such as Horyu-ji and Yakushiji Temple that were constructed for conducting memorial services for the deceased. It is said that three-storied pagodas and five-storied pagodas such as the ones seen at Horyu-ji and Yakushiji Temple transformed over time into five-ring pagodas under the influence of esoteric cosmology.

Esoteric religion had the idea that 5 elements of 《earth/water/fire/wind/space? constituted the universe and the human world. Five-ring pagodas consist of shapes of "space = jewel-type" "wind = hemispherical》"fire = triangle" "water = spherical" and "earth = rectangle" joined together.


Once five-ring pagodas themselves used to be facilities to memorialize the deceased, but they got increasingly simplified after tombstones became the main method of burying and mourning, and with this, Kaku Toba became the common Sotoba type used in memorial services.

Memorial Services with a Concept of 《Pursuit of Good Deeds》

Sotoba first came into existence as a tower to hold the remains of Buddha. In our day, they stand alongside tombstones as a part of memorial services where the living memorialize their ancestors. There is an idea in Buddhism whereby "feelings of mourning become a merit for the deceased and furthermore a merit in the world of the living.? In other words, erecting Sotoba not only leads a way for the deceased to peaceful rest, but also is beneficial for the living.

9. Differences Between Ita Toba (Plate-Type Japanese Stupas) and Kaku Toba (Pillar-Type Japanese Stupas)

Did you know that Sotoba are called by different names by the timing and methods of a memorial service? For example, 《Ita Toba》 and 《Kaku Toba》 - Both of these words are often heard in Japan, but are they different? If so, how? Let’s examine their differences in detail.

What are Ita Toba?

An Ita Toba has a thickness of approximately 1cm and a length of about 60 - 180cm. This relatively big range in the length is due to customary differences by region.

Sotoba are often seen standing quietly behind tombstones at most cemeteries. Most of these Sotoba are the Ita Toba type - that’s how common this type is.

Sotoba overall have changed their shapes and role over their long history. Ita Toba is the latest style of Sotoba and represents the changes Sotoba underwent through generations and various needs of each era.

What are Kaku Toba?

Kaku Toba are 10cm thick and about 120 - 210cm long, larger than Ita Toba. The roots of Kaku Toba go back to five-ring pagodas that were built to memorialize the deceased. Just like five-ring pagodas, each Kaku Toba consists of 5 elements, specifically, the space (jewel-shaped), wind (hemispherical), fire (triangular), water (spherical) and earth (rectangular), with 《bonji,》 letters that were used to indicate gods and Bodhisattva in ancient India.

Kaku Toba are more versatile than Ita Toba in their usage, and there are cases where Kaku Toba are used as grave markers until tombstones are built. In addition, they are often used at celebratory rituals in the honor of Nichiren (a Japanese priest who lived in the 13th century, well known for proposing the chanting of Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō, that is, Devotion to the Mystic Law of the Lotus Sutra or Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law), as well as at ceremonies to celebrate the completion of temple construction.

Same Roots, but Different Sotoba Types

Although Ita Toba and Kaku Toba seem very different, Ita Toba came about from simplification and slimming of Kaku Toba. In other words, both of these Sotoba types share five-ring pagodas as their roots, are both designed with the pagodas’ 5 elements, and both play a role in memorializing the deceased. The style of 《bonji,》 mantras and Kaimyo (the name of the person who joined Buddhism, that is, in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition, a name given to the deceased after his/her death) written on these 2 types of Sotoba is the same as well. Perhaps the only strict difference is in their sizes and purposes they serve. At any rate, they are both essential parts of Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition that we must pass on to future generations.

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10. What Are Kyogi Toba (Japanese Stupas Made of Raw Woods Without Cutting Branches and Leaves)?

Sotoba overall are used in memorializing our ancestors, but there is a kind of Sotoba used in a unique type of memorial services: Kyogi Toba are set off and float on the water in a memorial service. Let’s look closely.

What Are Kyogi Toba?

Kyogi Toba are made with a thin wood material called 《Kyogi》 that has a length of 27 - 36cm and a thickness of mere 1cm. Considering that the size of an Ita Toba is almost 1m in length and 1cm in thickness, it’s apparent how small Kyogi Toba are.

In some regions, it is customary to worship the deceased in front of Buddhist altars by placing items with their Kaimyo (the name of the person who joined Buddhism, that is, in Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition, a name given to the deceased after his/her death). Kyogi Toba are also sold commercially, i.e., not only erected by temples for a fee, and it is allowed to purchase them and write Kaimyo on them.

Memorial Services with Kyogi Toba

At memorial services with Kyogi Toba, mantras and Kaimyo are written on Kyogi Toba, which are then set off on rivers. There are also memorial services of a simplified type, where Kyogi Toba are dipped into basins with water in them. In any case, Kyogi Toba are used in memorial services that involve the use of the water.

Some temples do not set off Kyogi Toba on rivers, but rather place them in front of Buddhist altars in memorial services. As can be seen, regional customs, their religious sects and memorial service traditions govern the use of Kyogi Toba use.

Unique Memorial Services

In general, Sotoba are erected behind tombstones, which is a standard method of memorialize the deceased on certain milestones as stipulated in traditional Japanese Buddhist funeral tradition, such as the 49th day, 7th year, 13th year, 17th year after death. Compared to this, Kyogi Toba are unique in that after mantras are written on them, Kyogi Toba are set off on the water.

In Japan, from the ancient times, there has been a memorial service called 《Toryu Nagashi》 where the living set off offerings in dedication of their ancestors to seas and rivers. It’s not clear if Kyogi Toba and Toryu Nagashi are related. However, it is very interesting that there are non-Buddhist ways of memorial services using the water. Be it Sotoba or Toryu Nagashi, each and every type of memorial services has its profound meaning and history, and we must make sure that they will be passed on to future generations.

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